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Determination of sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation of pupillary diameter by pharmacological blockade

      Introduction: The pupillary diameter (PD) continuously oscillates due to fluctuating autonomic innervation. For heart rate (HR), oscillations in the low- (LF: 0.03–0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF: 0.15–0.5 Hz) ranges are associated with fluctuating sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow. For PD, the relation between frequencies of PD-oscillations and autonomic outflow has not yet been determined.
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