Parasympathetic involvement in sleep medicine, cardiovascular implications

      Background: Resting parasympathetic excess (PE) is associated with day-time sleepiness. PE from a sympathetic challenge is associated with sleep disturbances, including difficulty falling asleep and frequent waking. PE is also associated with bradycardia, low BP, depression and depression/anxiety syndromes. Depression is a known morbidity and mortality risk factor in CVD. Therefore, the PE associated with sleep disturbances are also contributors to associated cardiovascular risks. Correcting PE may reduce morbidity and mortality risks associated with CVD.
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