In the field of educational psychology in Japan, a model of “over-adaptation” has been applied to conceptualize the personality of students who are vulnerable to external stressors and prone to developing psychiatric problems. However, the influence of over-adaptation on physiological functions in adolescents is still largely unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between an over-adapted tendency and autonomic nervous system activities in high school girls.
Circadian profiles of cardiac autonomic nervous system activities in 47 normal high school girls were evaluated using time-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) taken from 24-h ambulatory electrocardiogram recordings, and their relation to an over-adaptation scale composed of 5 subscales was evaluated.
A significant increase in RMSSD (root mean square of successive difference of normal-to-normal beat intervals) during daytime (09:00–14:00) was observed in students who scored high on the sum of the over-adaptation subscales (n = 6). Two of the over-adaptation subscales, namely, “self-restraint” and “self-insufficiency”, were positively correlated with time-domain measures.
Parasympathetic activity in over-adapted students was elevated during school, and this autonomic response was suggested to be linked to over-adaptation subscales related to repressed emotions in over-adapted students. Thus, in over-adapted students, repressing emotions appears to be a style of coping, and may lead to a quiet, emotionally stable life in school, which in turn may result in parasympathetic activation.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Gender differences in the relationship between depression and suicidal ideation in young adolescents.Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry. 2001; 35: 498-503
- Review of studies on over-adaptation conducted in Japan [in Japanese].in: Annual Report Graduate School of Education. 60(2). Tohoku University, 2012: 283-294
- Autonomic specificity of discrete emotion and dimensions of affective space: a multivariate approach.Int. J. Psychophysiol. 2004; 51: 143-153
- Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence.Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 2003; 60: 837-844
- Heart rate variability in depressive and anxiety disorders.Am. Heart J. 2000; 140: 77-83
- How to assess sympathetic activity in humans.J. Hypertens. 1999; 17: 719-734
- Vagal cardiac control throughout the day: the relative importance of effort-reward imbalance and within-day measurements of mood, demand and satisfaction.Biol. Psychol. 2001; 56: 23-44
- Heart rate variability is related to self-reported physical activity in a healthy adolescent population.Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2009; 106: 877-883
- Heart rate variability (HRV) in adolescent females with anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder.Acta Paediatr. 2010; 99: 604-611
- Psychosocial factors and heart rate variability in healthy women.Psychosom. Med. 1999; 61: 49-57
- Over-adapted tendency and childhood depression; a study of Japanese junior-high school students [in Japanese].in: Annual Report Graduate School of Education. 55(2). Tohoku University, 2007: 271-288
- Tendency toward over-adaptation; school adjustment and stress responses [in Japanese].Jpn. J. Educ. Psychol. 2008; 56: 23-31
- Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability in Type As and Type Bs during mental workload.Psychosom. Med. 1992; 54: 462-470
- Heart rate spectral analysis, cardiac norepinephrine spillover, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity during human sympathetic nervous activation and failure.Circulation. 1994; 90: 234-240
- Autonomic nervous system reactivity to positive and negative mood induction: the role of acute psychological responses and frontal electrocortical activity.Biol. Psychol. 2011; 86: 230-238
- A study on over-adaptation by means of emotional expression in the frustrating situations [in Japanese].Kyoto Univ. Res. Study Educ. 2003; 49: 481-493
- Poor sleep and cardiovascular function in children.Hypertension. 2011; 58: 16-21
- The relationship between over-adaptation and depression, obsessive–compulsive symptoms, anthropophobic tendency, and school nonattendance; based on questionnaire data from two Japanese high schools [in Japanese].J. Sch. Ment. Health. 2009; 12: 69-76
- Normal ranges of heart rate variability during infancy and childhood.Pediatr. Cardiol. 1997; 18: 297-302
- The effects of emotions on short-term power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability.Am. J. Cardiol. 1995; 76: 1089-1093
- New method of time series analysis and MemCalc.in: Saito K. A Recent Advance in Time Series Analysis by Maximum Entropy Method. Hokkaido University Press, 1994: 11-29
- Heart rate variability and depressed mood in physical education students: a longitudinal study.Auton. Neurosci. 2010; 156: 117-123
- Cardiac vagal tone: a physiological index of stress.Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 1995; 19: 225-233
- The CES-D Scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population.Appl. Psychol. Meas. 1977; 1: 385-401
- Basic emotions are associated with distinct patterns of cardiorespiratory activity.Int. J. Psychophysiol. 2006; 61: 5-18
- Heart rate variability in healthy children and adolescents is partially related to age and gender.Int. J. Cardiol. 2001; 81: 169-174
- Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use.Eur. Heart J. 1996; 17: 354-358
- Alcohol use, urinary cortisol, and heart rate variability in apparently healthy men: evidence for impaired inhibitory control of the HPA axis in heavy drinkers.Int. J. Psychophysiol. 2006; 59: 244-250
- Cardiac autonomic regulation is impaired in girls with major depression.Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry. 2010; 34: 613-618
- Heart rate variability related to effort at work.Appl. Ergon. 2011; 42: 830-838
- Age, body mass index, and menstrual cycle influence young women's heart rate variability — a multivariable analysis.Clin. Auton. Res. 2005; 15: 292-298
- Effects of work stress on ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability.Hypertension. 2000; 35: 880-886
- Biofeedback of heart rate variability and related physiology: a critical review.Appl. Psychophysiol. Biofeedback. 2010; 35: 229-242
- Effects of menstrual cycle on cardiac autonomic innervation as assessed by heart rate variability.Ann. Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2002; 7: 60-63
- Relation of high heart rate variability to healthy longevity.Am. J. Cardiol. 2010; 105: 1181-1185
Published online: March 18, 2013
Accepted: February 20, 2013
Received in revised form: November 28, 2012
Received: September 10, 2012
© 2013 Elsevier B.V. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.