Orexins, orexin receptors and cardiovascular regulation during psychological stress

      Orexins play a critical role in the control of arousal and hyperarousal and therefore make an important contribution to the regulation of cardiovascular function. The most remarkable feature of orexin is the location of its neurons, which corresponds to the classic hypothalamic defence region described more than 50 years ago in the dorsal tuberal hypothalamus. Second, orexin terminals are found in all the premotor sympathetic regions, including paraventricular nucleus, rostral ventromedial and ventrolateral medulla and the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord where premotor sympathetic neurons are located. Three, injection of orexin at all these levels evoke excitatory cardiovascular responses.
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