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Cardiovascular autonomic and olfactory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson’s Disease

  • E. Vichayanrat
    Affiliations
    Autonomic & Neurovascular Medicine Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London at St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK

    Autonomic Unit, NHNN, Queen Square, London, UK
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  • D.A. Low
    Affiliations
    Autonomic & Neurovascular Medicine Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London at St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK

    Autonomic Unit, NHNN, Queen Square, London, UK

    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University,Tom Reilly Building, Byrom Street Campus, Liverpool, UK
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  • K.B. Nilsen
    Affiliations
    Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

    Oslo University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Section for Clinical Neurophysiology, Norway
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  • V. Iodice
    Affiliations
    Autonomic & Neurovascular Medicine Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London at St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK

    Autonomic Unit, NHNN, Queen Square, London, UK
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  • C.J. Mathias
    Affiliations
    Autonomic & Neurovascular Medicine Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London at St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK

    Autonomic Unit, NHNN, Queen Square, London, UK
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      Impaired olfaction is a recognised non-motor feature and considered to be a reliable biomarker for assisting with diagnosing Parkinson’s disease (PD). In addition, cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is increasingly accepted in PD as a major non-motor sign. Assessment of both these non-motor symptoms may increase the detection of PD and thus aid management.
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