Purpose: Over the past decade, employing sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) we demonstrated potent modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA). However, GVS affects the discharge of afferents from the entire vestibular apparatus. Here we seek to differentiate between the vestibular organs, by employing specific physiological stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that linear acceleration in the horizontal plane, which targets the utricle exclusively, will evoke vestibulosympathetic reflexes to skin but not to muscle.
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Received: May 15, 2013
© 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.