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Circadian rhythms of cardiovascular autonomic function: Physiology and clinical implications in neurodegenerative diseases

  • Francesca Baschieri
    Affiliations
    Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Neuromotorie, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Postal address: IRCSS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, UOC Clinica Neurologica NeuroMet, Ospedale Bellaria, via Altura 3, 40139 Bologna, Italia.
    Pietro Cortelli
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, UOC Clinica Neurologica NeuroMet, Bologna, Italy.
    Footnotes
    1 Postal address: IRCSS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, UOC Clinica Neurologica NeuroMet, Ospedale Bellaria, via Altura 3, 40139 Bologna, Italia.
    Affiliations
    Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Neuromotorie, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy

    IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, UOC Clinica Neurologica NeuroMet, Bologna, Italy
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Postal address: IRCSS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, UOC Clinica Neurologica NeuroMet, Ospedale Bellaria, via Altura 3, 40139 Bologna, Italia.
Published:February 01, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2019.01.009

      Abstract

      Circadian rhythms of blood pressure and heart rate are regulated by a biological clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which modulates the autonomic nervous system activity directed to the heart and blood vessels. Humoral mediators released with periodicity induced by the SCN as well as sleep are also important factors. Disruption of physiological cardiovascular circadian rhythms has important clinical implications, as it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In this review, firstly we will give an overview on the neuroanatomic and physiologic aspects of cardiovascular circadian rhythms. Secondly we will examine how to assess them in clinical practice. Finally we will discuss certain neurodegenerative diseases in which there is an alteration of these rhythms, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

      Abbreviations:

      BP (blood pressure), SBP (systolic blood pressure), DBP (diastolic blood pressure), HR (heart rate), SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus), AVP (arginine-vasopressin), PVN (paraventricular nucleus), NREM (non-rapid eye movement), REM (rapid eye movement), MSA (multiple system atrophy), AF (autonomic failure), OH (orthostatic hypotension), PD (Parkinson's disease), DLB (dementia with Lewy bodies), PAF (pure autonomic failure), AD (Alzheimer's disease), HD (Huntington's disease), FFI (fatal familial insomnia)

      Keywords

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