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The innervation of the bladder, the pelvic floor, and emotion: A review

      Abstract

      The innervation of the pelvic region is complex and includes extensive neurologic pathways. The higher centres' organisation determining the pelvic floor and organs' function remains a challenge understanding the physiological and pain mechanisms. Psychological and emotional factors have a profound influence on the pelvic floor and organ dysfunction such as LUTS. LUTS are associated with stress, depression, and anxiety. Neuroception is a subconscious neuronal system for detecting threats and safety and might explain the permanent disturbance of higher brain centres maintaining functional urological and gastrointestinal disorders and sphincter dysfunction.

      Abbreviations:

      BPS/IC (bladder pain syndrome), CPPS (chronic pelvic pain syndrome), HRV (heart rate variability), IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), LUTS (lower urinary tract symptoms), n (nerve), OAB (overactive bladder), PAG (periaqueductal grey matter), PF (pelvic floor), PFD (pelvic floor dysfunction), PFM (pelvic floor muscle(s)), PFSC (pelvic floor stimulation centre), POSC (pelvic organ stimulation centre), PS (parasympathetic), SES (social engagement system)

      Keywords

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