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Cerebrovascular regulation in patients with vasovagal syncope and autonomic failure due to familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy

      Highlights

      • Pursuit Projection Regression is a nonlinear method to study myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms of cerebral autoregulation
      • Healthy controls, syncope, and autonomic failure groups were studied with head-up tilt test· In healthy subjects, tilt did not change the range or effectiveness of cerebral autoregulation.
      • During tilt, syncope group showed augmentation of range/effectiveness of cerebral autoregulation Autonomic failure showed an abnormally absent response of cerebral autoregulation during tilt

      Abstract

      Introduction

      While there is strong evidence for autonomic involvement in cerebrovascular function acutely, long-term role of autonomic nervous system in cerebrovascular function has been controversial. We assessed autoregulation in 10 healthy individuals, nine patients with vasovagal syncope (VVS), and nine with Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy (FAP), in response to head-up tilt test (HUTT).

      Methods

      Arterial blood pressure heart rate, cardiac output, and bilateral cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) at the M1 segment of middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler ultrasound) were recorded during supine rest and 70° HUTT. Autoregulation was quantified using a validated nonlinear and nonparametric approach based on projection pursuit regression. Plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline were also measured at rest and during HUTT.

      Results

      During supine rest and HUTT, plasma noradrenaline content was lower in FAP patients. During HUTT, VVS patients had a hyperadrenergic status; CBFV decreased in all groups, which was greater in FAP patients (p < 0.01). Healthy controls responded to HUTT with a reduction in CBFV responses to increases (p = 0.01) and decreases (p < 0.01) in arterial pressure without any change in the range or effectiveness of autoregulation. VVS patients responded to HUTT with a reduction in falling (p = 0.02), but not rising slope (p = 0.40). Autoregulatory range (p < 0.01) and effectiveness increased (p = 0.09), consistent with the rapid increase in levels of catecholamines. In FAP patients, the level of increase in range of autoregulation was significantly related to the magnitude of increase in plasma noradrenaline in response to HUTT (R2 = 0.26, p = 0.05).

      Conclusion

      Autonomic dysfunction affects the cerebral autoregulatory response orthostatic to challenge.

      Abbreviations:

      FAP (Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy), VVS (Vasovagal syncope), HUT (Head-up tilt test), CBFV (Cerebral blood flow velocity)

      Keywords

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