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Dysautonomia and related outcomes in Guillain-Barre syndrome

Published:December 20, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2022.103070

      Abstract

      Background

      Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS) presents an annual incidence of 1.2–2.3 per 100,000. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems' peripheral control of visceral organs is affected by GBS aberrant immune response. Associated cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, sudomotor, pupillary, and other systems disturbances cause significant morbidity and mortality. This study aims to evaluate the dysautonomia spectrum in GBS patients, its relationship with patient outcomes, and compare it with those without autonomic disturbances.

      Methods

      We performed an ambispective review study of patients with GBS and dysautonomia admitted to the Institute of Neurology from 2017 to 2021. We recorded demographics, comorbidities, nerve conduction studies, clinical course, hospital complications, and functional outcomes.

      Results

      We included 214 patients, mean age 46.44 ± 16.49 years, 51 (31 %) presented dysautonomia, hypertension in most of the patients 39 (84.8 %), hypotension 35 (76.1 %), tachycardia 35 (76.1 %), enteric dysmotility 35 (76.1 %), and need for vasopressor 27 (58.7 %) were common characteristics. Twenty (39.2 %) with a demyelinating form and twenty (39.2 %) with an axonal motor form. The bivariate analysis report factors associated with dysautonomia, were lower cranial nerves (VII, IX, X) involvement (p = 0.002), need for mechanical ventilation (p = 0.0001) and intensive care (p = 0.0001), higher mEGOS (p = 0.05), EGRIS (p = 0.004), GBS disability score (p = 0.004), and delirium presence (p = 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that dysautonomic patients needed more days for the independent walk (p = 0.004). There was no associated mortality.

      Conclusions

      Autonomic dysfunction in GBS significantly affects the peripheral nervous system. With consequently worse functional results. Further investigation needs to clarify whether more aggressive treatment is beneficial in this category of GBS.

      Keywords

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